Stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans, are serious pests of livestock worldwide. Their painful bites disrupt livestock behavior and reduce productivity. They have been implicated in the transmission of several diseases of veterinary importance . An emerging issue is serious outbreaks of stable flies associated with crop residues. Outbreaks of greater than 1600 flies per animal have been observed. In addition to reducing livestock productivity and mortality, outbreaks are giving rise to social discord. Although and old foe, this is an emerging issue of great social and economic importance.
Journals participating in Peerage of Science
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